Thailand is a fertile country, and agriculture, which broadly includes crop cultivation, forestry, livestock breeding, fisheries and mining, is the Thai economy's largest and most important sector.

Rice forms a staple part of the Thai diet; and while it is still the basis of the rural economy, it has been joined by newer, increasingly important export crops like sugar, tapioca, maize, pineapples, rubber, coconuts, and kenaf. Raw cotton and soybeans are also produced for export and tobacco production is on the rise. Vineyards have been planted and Thai vintners hope to turn out quality wines in due course.

Tropical fruits, including more than 20 varieties of edible bananas, are grown in abundance, and intensive livestock breeding includes cattle, poultry and swine rearing.

Thailand has a large fishing fleet operating from its 800-kilometer Indian Ocean and 1,800-kilometer Gulf of Thailand coasts. Thailand ranks among the world's top ten nations in the fishing industry in terms of total catch and export. Fishing is the third largest activity after crops and livestock.

Tin, fluorite, gypsum and lignite largely dominate Thailand's mining industry.

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